Many governors across the U.S. are disregarding or creatively interpreting White House guidelines in easing their states' lockdowns and letting businesses reopen, an Associated Press analysis found.
The AP determined that 17 states do not appear to meet one of the key benchmarks set by the White House for loosening up - a 14-day downward trajectory in new cases or infection rates. And yet many of those have begun to reopen or are about to do so, including Alabama, Kentucky, Maine, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Utah.
Because of the broad way in which the nonbinding guidelines are written, other states, including Georgia, have technically managed to meet the criteria and reopen despite not seeing a steady decline in cases and deaths.
Asked at the White House on Thursday about states that are reopening without meeting some of the federal government's benchmarks, President Donald Trump said: "The governors have great power as to that, given by us. We want them to do that. We rely on them. We trust them. And hopefully they are making the right decisions."
The push to reopen across the country comes amid pressure from businesses that are collapsing by the day and workers who have been thrown out of a job. More than 33 million Americans have applied for unemployment benefits during the past seven weeks.
Elsewhere around the world, the Bank of England projected that Britain's economy will shrink by 14 percent this year, its biggest decline since 1706, when Europe was embroiled in the War of the Spanish Succession.
The economic woes have affected even brand-name businesses, with Neiman Marcus filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, the first U.S. department store chain to be toppled by the outbreak.
The reopening debate in the U.S. echoes that underway in Europe, where regional and political rifts are emerging over how fast to lift the lid on the lockdowns.
French mayors are resisting the government's call to reopen schools, while Italian governors want Rome to ease lockdown measures faster. As the British government looks to reopen the economy, Scottish leader Nicola Sturgeon has warned that acting too fast could let the virus wreak havoc again.
Public health experts around the world have cautioned that reopening too soon, without widespread testing and tracing, could enable the virus to come surging back with tragic consequences.
The U.S. has recorded over 74,000 deaths and 1.2 million confirmed infections.
But this week, University of Washington researchers nearly doubled their projection of deaths in the U.S. to about 134,000 through early August, largely to reflect the loosenings of stay-at-home restrictions.
When Trump announced the guidelines April 16, he declared a "new front in our war" and said he was "establishing clear scientific metrics and benchmarks on testing, new case growth and hospital capacity that must be met before advancing each phase."
Since then, many states have reopened while daily cases and infection rates have either plateaued or continued to climb, the AP analysis found. Some states are going it alone, using their own criteria, not the White House's.
The White House has not been specific about how states should calculate the 14-day downward trajectory. Depending on how you calculate it, a state might pass or fail. The AP analyzed counts of tests and confirmed cases compiled by Johns Hopkins University and looked at the numbers using a rolling seven-day average to account for day-to-day variability in test reporting.
As governments grapple with when to restart their economies, the Trump administration has shelved a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention document with step-by-step advice to local authorities on how and when to reopen restaurants and other public places.
The 17-page report with detailed instructions on what precautions to take was supposed to be published last Friday, but agency scientists were told it "would never see the light of day," according to a CDC official who was not authorized to discuss the matter and spoke to the AP on condition of anonymity.
Nebraska Gov. Pete Ricketts, a Republican, has eased some rules to allow salons, tattoo parlors and restaurants to reopen with restrictions in most counties. Churches were allowed to resume in-person services, weddings and funerals on Monday, with some restrictions.
But both new cases and the rate of positive test results have increased in Nebraska in recent weeks. Ricketts said Wednesday that the number of new cases is a poor indicator because it is naturally going to increase as the state ramps up testing.
He suggested that the lockdown restrictions are too drastic. "We could ban just about all deaths on the interstate by reducing the speed to 5 mph, but we don't do that," he said.
Georgia has embarked on the most aggressive reopening schedule in the country. It has met one of the White House criteria by recording a decrease in the rate of positive test results, but it has seen nearly 600 more deaths and a hot spot in a poultry-processing area since Gov. Brian Kemp moved to ease business restrictions.
The head of Utah's response, Maj. Gen. Jeff Burton, has implemented a color-coded reopening system that was in the works before the White House issued its guidelines.
"We had that plan long before there was a federal plan," Burton said. "It's a solid plan that lays out the road to recovery."
Among other things the White House guidelines say that before reopening, states should have a downward trend in flu and COVID-19-like illnesses for 14 days; hospitals should be able to treat all patients without crisis care; and robust testing should be in place for at-risk health workers.
But there are few specifics, and the plan says local officials "may need to tailor the application of these criteria to local circumstances."
Of the 33 states that have had a 14-day downward trajectory of either cases or positivity rates, 25 are partially opened or moving to reopen within days, the AP analysis finds.
Illinois, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, Virginia and Wisconsin, which have not seen a 14-day decline in cases or rates of positive tests, remain closed despite meeting some other benchmarks.
Many governors are focusing on the criteria that call for a reduction in the percentage of positive tests for COVID-19. Up to now, many states have been doing limited testing, typically on their sickest residents. The percentage of people testing positive has dropped as testing expanded to the broader population in recent weeks.
Public health experts say the guidance from the top has been anything but clear. In addition to burying the CDC report, the Trump administration has tried to push responsibility for expanding testing capacity onto the states.
"We're a federalist society, so some of the blame goes to the governors and some of the blame goes to the president. But the responsibility for coordinating and enforcing and implementing a national plan comes from the White House," said Lawrence Gostin, a public health expert at Georgetown University.
He likened it to "an orchestra without a conductor."
Worldwide, the virus has infected more than 3.8 million people and killed over a quarter-million, by Johns Hopkins' count, which experts agree understates the dimensions of the pandemic because of limited testing, differences in counting the dead and concealment by some governments.
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